A lot of solar panel batteries have capacities around 10kWh so (depending on your specific configurations) this allows enough stored energy to power up to four circuits in your home, the most common of which are your fridge, kitchen, bathroom, and heater. For larger homes, or if you want to power more than four circuits, it is sometimes possible to upgrade to additional battery storage.
The time it takes the four circuits to consume all the energy in your solar home battery varies based on things like battery type, age, capacity, appliance size, etc. Most solar panel batteries should keep your essentials running for at least a few hours, but it is possible that your battery could maintain enough charge to keep your essentials running for days at a time.
That’s because your panels continue to charge your battery during the day, so it’s possible that they could produce enough energy each new day for your battery to never fully deplete overnight. Then the battery will begin to recharge as soon as sunlight hits panels the next morning.